Who wouldn't get into this hot Japanese tub underneath an exquisite tile mosaic?! Taken from "Sento - the Japanese Bathhouse" published by Peperoni Books from Berlin. © Julia Baier

Sento: A Glimpse Into Japanese Bathhouse Culture

In the past, we took you into a sento (Japanese bathhouse) and showed you its rich visual treats. Today, PingMag takes a look at this institution as place of social interaction: German photographer Julia Baier spent several weeks documenting the vivid life inside a sento. The result is Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse published by Berlin-based Peperoni Books in German, Japanese and English. And for those of you that can’t make it to her photo exhibition right now at the Japanese-German Center Berlin, Germany — PingMag had a chat with Julia about her bathhouse experiences.

Written by Verena

When did you first have the idea about a photo series on sento? This wouldn’t exactly be the usual Japan topic…


Sweet! From Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse. © Julia Baier

My first contact with Japan was in 2004: One day I got an e-mail from a Japanese gallery owner, Yoshinori Nomura, who saw my work in France as he was working in a photo gallery in Paris at that time. He wanted to exhibit the public bath, a photo series about German swimming pools in his Out of Place gallery which he had just opened in Nara. And Nomura invited me to come to Japan and produce a new work there. So, I applied for a scholarship from the German VG Bild-Kunst — which I finally got. Thanks to that I went to Japan for five weeks in June and July 2005.

When I arrived I didn’t know anything about sento and the only idea I had was taking pictures of normal daily life in Japan. I tried to find the same swimming pools in Japan as you would have over in Europe. But I only found one on the 8th floor of a building. I realised that there is another bathing culture with the sento being a part of Japanese daily life and at the same time a traditional place.

Which opened doors for you… What was your first sento experience like?

My very first visit was alone and without a camera. I felt kind of a spiritual and deeply peaceful atmosphere and, very quickly, became a true fan! Later, when I started to explore the sento in Nara, I asked people whom I knew from the gallery to go with me. And these friends introduced me in the female section of the sento. Slowly I started to go alone since I went there usually twice a day! And it occurred that, in some sento, the women started to recognise me.

Meditative tranquility. From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

How did you feel as an outsider in this place?

Of course, like in every public place in Japan you are first of all a foreigner, that is obvious. But the women were very polite which made me feel comfortable. For sure, I strictly tried to follow the “rules” not to dive in the pools before washing the whole body first! New to me was that it was incredibly hot — especially the hot tubs — and the humidity inside!

Oh, yes! And how did you perceive the people interacting inside the bathhouse?

There can be so many different atmospheres and moods in a sento — it can get pretty crowded, but also there can be a calmness which impressed me a lot. Also, it depends on the time you go there: In the afternoon, you can find yourself very often alone and it is usually calmer than in the evening times.
Overall I had the impression that the sento is a place of communication. People seem to go more often to the one in their neighbourhood than try to experience a different sento. Meaning they know each other more or less, which sometimes creates a pretty familiar atmosphere.

A cozy get-together. From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

For folks who never had the chance to experience a public bath, could you explain what happens there? There used to be bathhouses in Europe as well…


Typical sento entrance with the characteristic Hiragana letter. From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

From early, 3 p.m., to late, people from the neighbourhood come here to wash and cleanse themselves, to sink into the hot water and relax. Sento are gender separated and visitors sit on a small stool to wash themselves with a bowl of hot water. The water is poured over the body before soaping begins, followed by rubbing, scrubbing and carefully rinsing off. The entire washing process is repeated again and again. During that, the visitors keep chatting with the others, or are lost in their own thoughts — just as they choose. Once this cleansing process is over and all of the suds are carefully washed off, people climb into one of the bathtubs which are very hot!

The origin of the sento stretches back to the 12th century when monks opened their baths to the public. It was the only possiblity to wash yourself because there weren’t any bathrooms at home. By today, even if almost every flat has a bathroom, the sento still exist but their number is declining. However, I heard that only in Tokyo there a still more than 1,000 sento left!

News? Gossip! From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

What a pity! And your photo series shows so well the warm atmosphere inside! We really want to know: How did you manage to get access and take pictures?

First of all, the sento is a very warm place and it was my wish to show it like that. Of course I knew that this would be a delicate plan since people are bathing completely naked. However in the beginning, I had friends who helped me taking pictures. The most important thing is to get a feeling for the atmosphere and to show the people that they don’t have to be scared about me and my camera. Of course, I really had to be very careful not to disturb anybody. Sometimes I only took my small camera to take two or three shoots and put it straight back into my bag. Sometimes I just took a bath. Also, I was becoming part of the scenery as a naked bathing person!

So how did you persuade the women since this is a pretty intimate place…?


It’s common to rub each other’s back. From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

I tried to be very open and get in contact and a couple of old ladies became curious about my work. I wanted to give them the feeling that I didn’t want something “bad” but that my only aim was to show parts of their bathing culture [with their permission, of course.] It was in my interest to show the bathing people more like participants — and not just show naked people. There is a big difference! I tried to keep a distance and be very respectful in my behaviour as well as in my photos. I didn’t want to tell any visitor’s personal story, but show bathing people. That’s why I carefully selected the images so that you can’t make out a person’s identity exactly.

How long did it all take? And where are the sento located?

The process took four to five weeks and most pictures were taken in around 20 different sento in Nara, but also in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, the Kawayu Onsen and near Nagano.

Where there any surprises while you were doing the project?

First of all, I was really surprised of the sento because, coming from Europe, there is this cliché about Japanese places as very well organised with a straight, clear architecture. However, sento are not! They are pure, especially the washing rooms. However, the changing rooms are often very private, unorganised places. You can find so many little things and personal traces there. I think of stepping in a sento is like entering someone’s home. But since it is very unusual to be invited into a home in Japan, I felt like actually being in someone’s private place. I liked that because in Germany it is very popular to invite somebody to your home.

Three ladies and the beast: a cat in the bathhouse! From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

The picture with the cat is so cosy as it shows what a friendly place the sento is and what a central part it plays in Japanese life. But it’s not quite usual to see animals strolling around the sento…

It was the only sento where I could find a cat… I was quite surprised and she was very shy, so she started jumping out of the picture. Else, I only saw some fishes in little aquariums or in a pond in the outside area.
For me, this picture is very meaningful because it shows — as you mentioned — the familiar atmosphere and at the same time it resembles a “classical” picture and could be compared to old paintings with the theme of “bathing.”

And what’s the story behind the naked man laughing? That is just awesome!


Is he… naked? Yes, and laughing! From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

It was also an awesome moment. The gallery owner and his friend invited me to come over to the male section in their favourite sento. It was really the only moment where I had a look there! And it is also the only picture in my book with a male person! In the preface of the book, the gallerist describes in detail the visit of a female German photographer in the male section of a sento.
Let me quote him from there: “Naturally, Julia could only take photos in the women’s section, but she also wanted to take one session of shots in the men’s area. My friend and I offered to accompany her. We explained our plans to the bathhouse attendant and the other bathhouse guests and they gave us their permission. We called to each other across the wall between the men and women’s sections and, when we gave the agreed signal, Julia reached up over the wall and took her shots. She even came over into the men’s changing room. I was rather uncertain how I would look naked in a photo. But the wonderful thing about Julia is that she never makes anyone feel uneasy…”

No way! How was it?

The moment was really short and it was all really funny. You can see it in the photo…
And of course, it was exciting for me, but I wasn’t so surprised. In Germany, I’m used to going to the sauna very often, and there are mixed genders. So I wasn’t too shy. And anyway, there were only four men inside.


Cooling off after a hot bath. From “Sento – the Japanese Bathhouse.” © Julia Baier

You being in Germany, how would you compare the bathhouse culture in the two societies?

In Germany, in former times, there existed some extra bathing cubicles next to the swimming pools where people went to wash themselves due to a lack of a bathroom at home. Nowadays you don’t find them any more. However, these public bathrooms never had a spiritual meaning like a sento has because cleaning the body is not part of a spiritual act in Western Europe.
On the other hand, maybe the importance of a public bath as communication point can be compared. If you enter a swimming pool in Germany, you can also find this neighbourhood character or at least a familiar atmosphere where people like to meet each other.

What will we get to see next from you?

This was not the last time for me to go to Japan and, for sure, I will come back to have a look at the great onsen culture, too!

Yes, please do come! Thank you, Julia for your warm insights into Japanese culture with Sento – the Japanese bathhouse! Folks, if by any chance you’re in Berlin this summer, drop by the exhibition.

Exhibition Info:

The Public Pool and Sento, the Japanese Bathhouse by Julia Baier.
At Japanese-German Center Berlin, Berlin-Zehlendorf, Germany. Map.
Running until September 5th, 2008.
Open Mon through Thu from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Fri to 3.30 p.m.

  • Jude

    wow… interesting =]

  • http://craigbutcher.net Craig

    I really enjoyed reading this article. I wish the exhibition appears in the UK :)

  • Andrei

    Great article. If she ever comes out with a book, I would be first in line.

  • http://www.edges.com.pl tomek

    wow… awesome! I’m moving to Japan next month and I’m going to try it

  • Anonymous

    i love the public bathhouse at my nana hometown. All these happy memories. Love getting scrub down my the grandpas.
    FYI
    Also, some bathhouse don’t allow gaijin(western). But in Tokyo few touristy bathhouse for travellers.

  • michan

    i love the public bathhouse at my nana hometown. All these happy memories. Love getting scrub down by the grandpas.
    FYI
    Also, some bathhouse don’t allow gaijin(western). But in Tokyo few touristy bathhouse for travellers.

  • bitch

    perv photographer no camera allow in the bathhouse read the sign.

  • Anonymo

    Oh look, yet again, no penii. Full frontal bush is ok, though. WTF?

  • Jude

    -.- chill guys?

  • http://www.tokyotopia.com uktokyoite

    A very interesting article. I have never actually been to a sento but I love onsen. I guess I always thought I wouldn’t be welcome at a sento – as a gaijin. I think you have captured the social aspect of bathing (my experience from onsen) very well – this is not a disgusting or perverted activity – this is normal life.

    I am surprised that you were able to take your photos but I think it is very well done. Nice work.

  • aki

    I think she didnt get any permission. shame on u

  • http://arnaldojpbr@hotmail.com arnold´s

    qdo morei no japão trabalhei como motorista de caminhão e tive a oportunidade de conhecer diversas casas de banho.muito bacana, a que eu mais gostei foi em kanazawa pois tinhadiversos ofurôs.sinto saudades…

  • http://kymle.com/ Kym

    This shouldn’t be legal.

  • http://jon.lebensold.ca Jon Lebensold

    Great article… I can’t wait to experience a sento myself. It’s interesting how there’s commonality between japanese and turkish bathing culture, they both come from spiritual roots.

    When I was in Istanbul, I did a couple interviews with bath house owners:
    http://jon.lebensold.ca/random/the-hamam

  • http://www.andreisarusi.com Andrei Sarusi

    Great article, there’s something very nostalgic about sentos.

    just a note: these are artistic pictures, let’s not freak out. And read the article, the people gave permission. “(with their permission, of course.)”

  • http://www.timrudder.com tim

    gorgeous photos

  • http://www.sfalconer.com Stewy

    I went to an onsen in Nagoya, after at first feeling uncomfortable you quickly get over it and enjoy the relaxing water and atmosphere.

    What’s with all the crazy conservative comments. If you can’t handle seeing a naked body, you really shouldn’t be checking an art blog! Also, she states she received the subjects permission :D

    Another diverse and interesting article, as always.

  • http://chainsawsarestupid.wordpress.com angellesmelle

    yeah these are really cute I would love to do that like every day. well, like a couple days a week. It looks so fun. You know how you think when you’re in the shower! Conversations must be great

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  • jeropa

    manga é pajeros!!!

  • japanrock

    All u white ppl must read this:
    Please make urself nice and clean before f–king get into the onsen.

  • http://nagaijin.wordpress.com/ nagaijin

    Sento are relaxing places and there’s one in my neighbourhood which I go to now and then. A very hot bath makes the humid summer air feel so cool when you’re walking home. That said, I don’t know how they stay open – the vast majority of Japanese families bathe at home now, and most of the remaining patrons are not young. I’ve been to hot spring resorts lately and seen young people jumping into the pools wearing goggles and throwing their towels into the water – the sort of stuff no one would think of doing if they’d been raised going to sento.

  • http://WWW.MYSPACE.COM/TMINUSNYC TMINUS®

    Japanese culture of disciplined urban society is superior to that of the U.S.

    Only the sheltered American youth and ignorant adults would call this talented photographer and story-teller a pervert.

    She is as much an artist as that of Picasso or Monet.

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  • Ben

    想起當兵時後,大家一起衝進澡堂的時光…

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  • Anonymous

    wow.. this is quite amazing. puts my self-conscious nature to utter shame. i don’t even wanna wear a swim suit thank you very much.

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  • http://gaijinstudies.blogspot.com/2008/07/getting-wet.html Stu

    Eric Talmadge wrote an excellent book about the culture of the bath called “Getting Wet” that goes along well with this post.

    One of the main reasons I mention it is the abundance of ignorance or misguided comments surrounding Japanese bath that would be answered in this book.

    I blogged about his book but don’t take my word for it, check it out for yourself. It was a quick and very interesting read, perfect for a long flight, or while your soaking in a nice bath. As far as Gaijin being banned from bathhouses, he documents these very, very isolated incidents and points out that during his life spent in Japan he has never been denied entry. He goes on to point out the social etiquette of bathing and bathhouses so as not to be embarrassed (no pun intended)

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  • earl

    Wow, great photos and great article.

    And how did such a great story become some sort of racist pissing-match? Can we all please just enjoy the damn bath?

    I personally had a great time going to a sento in Japan, just a small neighborhood one with friends and (host) family.

    Also, a word on getting turned-down: I think people are too quick to assume being turned down is about race or nationality (which it can be, I’m not saying that’s not a factor) but also keep in mind they are trying to preserve these environments as neighborly and low-key, and not open them up to tourist traffic. Being respectful of that is important.

    Everyone will win and Japan will have one less ignorant, angry gaijin kicking up a fuss outside a damn bathhouse making the rest of us quiet, decent folk look like assholes.

  • earl

    Great article, great photos. I might buy this book, reminds me of relaxing evenings at the sento I went to in Japan with friends and (host)family.

    How did the comments for something like this become some sort of racist pissing match? Stop being such reactionary fucking hicks.

  • Anonymous

    It just seems voyeuristic and sexist.. no pictures of the author, few sample pictures with people acknowledging camera, only one picture of male nudity (no peepee).. I wonder if all the old ladies totally knew what was going on. “Sometimes I only took my small camera to take two or three shoots and put it straight back into my bag.” And some people started to recognize the perv but I’m sure the people more “in the know” waved away concerns about privacy by explaining that this person was involved in Art, so it was okay.

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  • http://www.essential-japan-guide.com Ichiro

    Beautiful photos providing a glimpse into a wonderful Japanese tradition!

  • tom c

    i just can’t imagine taking bath with family members in the bathhouse like that… no offense.
    lovely pics, by the way

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  • http://michealrussell.blogspot.com/ Micheal

    This article and its photos are done with such intimate elegance. First, I had no idea. Second, the ability of the artist to submerge oneself but still document in a powerfully emotional way. BRAVO!

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  • jen

    Wonderful pictures! such an interesting peak into japanese culture!

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  • http://www.tokyo-top-guide.com/index.html alma

    Japanese people bath in the Sento. A Sento is a public bathhouse.
    Japanese houses are very small because of shortage of land (most of Japan is mountainous) and crowded cities.
    Most Japanese apartments are so tiny, that having a bath was out of question.
    The Japanese are extremely clean people, and so they turned the bathing act almost into a ritual.
    The Sento is a strange mishmash between a Spa and a social get-together.
    Japanese people soap and wash themselves outside the bath tab, and only enter the water when they are clean. Then, a towel over their forehead, they relax in the water.
    Men and women bath separately, in case you were wondering.

    If your time in Tokyo permits – I highly recommend experiencing it. This is a very basic part of Life In Japanese Culture.

    http://www.tokyo-top-guide.com/LifeInJapanese_Culture.html

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  • http://thisone micheal

    that girl in the second picture needs to shave if u no what i mean

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    This article and its photos are done with such intimate elegance. First, I had no idea. Second, the ability of the artist to submerge oneself but still document in a powerfully emotional way. BRAVO!

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